9 leading Covid-19 vaccines in the world 39 leading Covid-19 vaccines in the world 3

More than 101 million Covid-19 vaccine doses have been administered in 77 countries and territories, according to data compiled by AFP from official sources.

There are 9 types of vaccines currently circulating in the world, based on 4 different operating mechanisms.

The Corminaty vaccine developed by Pfizer-BioNTech (USA – Germany) and mRNA-1273 developed by Moderna (USA) have been approved for emergency use in many countries and are dominating in North America, Europe, Israel and the Gulf region.

Pfizer’s vaccine was prepared at a clinic in Germany on February 2.

This type of vaccine contains a piece of genetic code called mRNA that scientists extracted from nCoV and expanded in the laboratory, in which the mRNA encodes proteins like the virus does to attack human cells.

Cells make protein copies and destroy genetic material from the vaccine.

Corminaty was about 95% effective, while mRNA-1273 was 94.5% effective in clinical trials.

Three vaccines using viral vector technology include AZD1222, also known as Covishield, developed by Oxford-AstraZeneca of England, Ad26.COV2.S of American corporation Johnson & Johnson and Sputnik V produced by Russian research institute Gamaleya.

Covishield has been approved for emergency use in the UK, India, Mexico and several other countries.

Meanwhile, Ad26.COV2.S has not been licensed in any country.

9 leading Covid-19 vaccines in the world

Two doses of Sputnik V vaccine are produced by the Gamaleya Institute.

A vaccine using a fragment protein mechanism (nCoV spike protein), NVX-CoV2373, developed by the American pharmaceutical company Novavax, is in Phase 3 testing and has not been approved by any country.

This vaccine contains harmless protein fragments of nCoV, instead of the entire virus.

China and India are developing three separate vaccines using inactivated viruses, including Sinopharm’s BBIBP-CorV, Sinovac’s CoronaVac and Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin.

Inactivated vaccines usually do not require cold temperatures, can be easily stored and transported in freeze-dried form, and are easily accessible to people in developing countries.

BBIBP-CorV is licensed for use in China, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates.

CoronaVac is approved for limited deployment in China.

Covaxin has been authorized for emergency use in India, although Phase Three trial results are not yet available and effectiveness has not been determined.

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